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What is an operating system, its functions, list and examples

March 04, 2022

What is an operating system, its functions, list, and examples

 Operating System (OS) is software that acts as an interface between computer hardware components and the user. In fact, you can call it a medium through which different parts of the user and computer can interact with each other.

The operating system is also called system software. Most people also call it "OS" by short name. It is also called the heart of the computer, the operating system is the system software, which acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware.

Let me explain this sentence directly, whenever you run the computer, then only this OS gives you the means to use the computer. Like you listen to a song by clicking on a .mp3 file, double-clicking on a word document, opening three or four windows, writing something on the keyboard, saving some files on the computer, etc. So you can never do all this without Operating System.


https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/what-is-a-network-operating-system/

What is meant by the operating system?

Operating System is software with the help of which you run your computer. Therefore, whenever you buy a new computer, you first get Windows 8 or Windows 10 loaded in it from the shopkeeper. And after that, you take the computer or your laptop to your home. Otherwise, without an operating system, you can never even turn on your computer.

It is also a question that why is it called System Software. If you want to run User Software means Application Software in the computer, then they can never run without OS.

This OS helps in using Computer Hardware well. The operating system mainly does the same thing like taking some input from the keyboard, processing the instruction, and sending the output to the computer screen.

You see this operating system only when you turn on the computer and when you turn off the computer. You live inside a computer like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC media player, Photoshop and many more software, to run them, we need a program or big software which we call Operating System.

The name of the OS used in mobile is Android, which everyone knows. You must have come to know what is Operating System, so let's know about some of its functions.

examples of operating systems

Different operating systems are used for different tasks. Here I have shared the operating system list, which most people like to use.

All these are examples of very big operating systems. Although there are not many differences in them, most people know them by these names.

operating system functions

Although the computer does a lot of work, first of all, when you turn on the computer, then the operating system is first loaded into the main memory means RAM and after that, what hardware does this user software need from which hardware it allocates. Below are the different functions of the OS, know more about them in detail.


1. Memory Management

Memory Management means managing primary and secondary memory. Main memory means RAM is a very large array of Bytes.

Meaning there are many small slots in memory where we can keep some data. Where there is an address of each branch. Main memory is the fastest memory that is used by CPU Direct. Because all the programs that the CPU runs are in the main memory only.

Operating System does all these things.

  • What part of Main Memory will be used, which will not, how much will be there, how much will not be.
  • In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and to whom how much will be given.
  • When the process asks for memory, it gives it to the memory OS (Process means a task or a small task that is done inside the computer).
  • When the process finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory.

2. Processor Management (Process Scheduling)

When it comes to the multiprogramming environment, the OS decides which process will get the processor who will not get it, and for how long.

This process is called Process Scheduling. Operating System does all this work.

  • The Operating System also sees that the Processor is empty or is doing some work, or is free and the Process has finished its work or not. If you want, you can see in Task Manager how many tasks are going on and how many are not. The program that gets all this work done, its name is Traffic Controller.
  • The CPU allocates the process.
  • When the work of one process is over, then it engages the processor in another work and frees the processor when nothing is working.

3. Device Management

Drivers are used in your computer, you must know that such as Sound Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, WiFi Driver but they help to run different Input / Output Device, but these Drivers OS runs.

So let's see what else this OS does.

  • Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that gets this task done is I/O Controller.
  • Just like different processes need devices to perform some tasks, the OS also does the work of device allocation. Let's take an example, if a process has to do some tasks like playing video, not taking out print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of output device monitor, printer. So when both these devices have to be given to the process OS does this work.
  • When the work of the process is over, then it deallocates the device back.

4. File Management

A lot of directories are kept organized in one file. Because with this we can easily find the data. So let's know what is the work of OS in File Management.

  • Keeps information, location and status organized. All this sees the file system.
  • Who will get which resource?
  • Resource De-allocate is to be done.

5. Security

When you turn on your computer, it asks you for that password, this means that the OS prevents your system from Unauthenticated Access. This keeps your computer safe. And you cannot open some programs without a password.

6. View System Performance

It sees the performance of the computer and improves the system. The OS keeps records of how long it takes to deliver a service.

7. Reporting Error

If a lot of errors are coming into the system, then the OS detects and recovers them.

8. Creating synergy between the software and the user

  • Assigns the task to the compiler, interpreter, and assembler. Connects different software with the user, so that the user uses the software well.
  • Provides communication between User and System.
  • The Operating System is stored in the BIOS. Everything else also makes the application user-friendly.

Features of operating system

Now let us know what are the features of the operating system:-

  • An Operating System is a collection of many programs, which run other programs.
  • It controls all the input/output devices.
  • The operating system is responsible for running all the application software.
  • The work of Process Scheduling means allocating and deallocating the process.
  • Informs you about the errors and threats happening in the system.
  • Establishes good coordination between User and Computer Programs.

By now you all must have come to know what the Operating System does ( Function of Operating System in Hindi ), so let us now know how many types of OS are there.

Types of Operating System – Types Of Operating System 

Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing with it, so the use of the operating system is increasing in every field like railways, research, satellite, industry, so know how many types of operating systems are there.

  1.  Batch Operating System
  2.  Simple Batch Operating System
  3.  Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
  4.  Network Operating System
  5.  Multiprocessor Operating System
  6.  Distributed Operating System
  7. Time-Sharing Operating System
  8.  Real-Time Operating System

1. Batch Processing Operating System

Batch processing operating systems were brought in only to overcome the problems of the earlier times. If we talk about the earlier systems, then it used to take more setup time.
At the same time, this much setup time has been reduced in this batch processing system where jobs are processed in batches. At the same time, this type of operating system is called a batch processing operating system in Hindi.

In this, any similar jobs are submitted to the CPU for processing and they are run simultaneously.

The main function of the Batch Processing System is that they execute the jobs automatically in batch. The most important thing that does this work is the 'Batch Monitor' which is located in the low-end of the main memory.

i) Simple Batch System

This is the oldest system in which there was no direct interaction between the user and the computer. In this system, the user had to bring the task or job to a storage unit to process it and submit it to the computer operator.

In this, all the jobs were given to the computer in a batch or line. Within a few days or within a few months, that job was processed and an output device had an output store. This system was used to process jobs in batch, hence its name was also called batch mode operating system.

ii) MultiProgramming Batch Systems

In this operating system, a job was picked up from memory and executed. The OS keeps on processing a job, if the job needs I/O at the same time, then the OS gives the second job to the CPU and I/O to the first one, because of this, the CPU is always busy.

The number of jobs in the memory is always less than the number of jobs in the disk. If a lot of jobs remain in the line, then the operating system decides which job will be processed first. CPU never remains idle in this OS.

The Time-Sharing system is also a part of the Multiprogramming system. Response time is very less in Time-Sharing System but CPU usage is more in Multi Programming.

Disadvantages
  • There is no direct interaction between the User and the Computer.
  • The job that comes first is the first process, so the user had to wait longer.

2. Network Operating System

Its abbreviation is NOS, the full form of NOS is " Network Operating System ". This network operating system provides its services to those computers which are connected to a network.

If they are given examples, then they include shared file access, shared applications, and printing capabilities.

NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to communicate simultaneously, to share files, and also with other hardware devices.

The earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems were not designed for single computer usage and network usage. But as computer networks started growing slowly and their use also increased, such operating systems also started developing.

There are mainly two types of a NOS (Network Operating System):-
Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, which is installed on every computer. On the other hand, there is a client-server model, in which one machine has a server and the other has the client software installed.

Types of Network Operating System

Talking about the types of Network Operating Systems, then they are mainly of two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client/server NOS:

1. Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share network resources that are saved in a common, accessible network location. In this architecture, all devices are treated equally according to functionality.

Peer-to-peer works best on small to medium LANs, plus they are also very cheap to set up.

2. Client/server network operating systems provide users to access all the resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are unified under a single file server that can be used by individual client actions to execute them, even in any physical location.

Client/server is very difficult to install, while it requires a high amount of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more.

Its biggest advantage is that the network is controlled centrally so that any changes can be made easily, while additional technology can also be incorporated.

We can represent a network operating system as a basic OS that runs on a network device, such as a router or firewall.

3. Multiprocessor System

In a multiprocessor system, many processors use a common physical memory. Computing power is very fast. All these processors work under one operating system. Here are some of its advantages below

Advantages

  • The speed is very high because Multiprocessor is used.
  • If many tasks are processed simultaneously, therefore the system throughput increases here. This means, how many job processes can be done in a second.
  • In this OS, the task is divided into sub-tasks, and each sub-task is given to a different processor, especially because of this, a task is completed in a very short time.

4. Distributed Operating System

The only purpose of using Distributed Operating System is that the world has a powerful OS and microprocessors have become very cheap, as well as communication technology has improved a lot.

Due to this advancement, now Distributed OS was made, whose price is very cheap and keeps them far-away computers blocked through the network. Which in itself is a great achievement.

Advantages

  • All the resources that are far away can be used easily, which resources do not remain empty.
  • Processing is faster with them.
  • The load is less on the host machine because the load gets distributed.

5. Time Sharing Operating System

In this, some time is provided by the OS to complete each task correctly, so that each task can be completed correctly. At the same time, every user uses a single system in which time is given to the CPU. This type of system is also called a multitasking system.

At the same time, whatever task is done in it, it can either be done by a single user or it can also be done by the multi-user.

The amount of time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, only after completing each task, the OS again starts the next task.

Advantages

Let us know about the advantages of the time-sharing operating system.

  • In this, the OS is given an equal opportunity to complete each task.
  • It is not an easy task to have duplicity of software in this. which is equal to.
  • CPU idle time can be reduced easily in this.

Disadvantages

Let us know about the disadvantages of the time-sharing operating system.

  • The issue of reliability is seen more in this.
  • In this, the security and integrity of everything have to be taken care of.
  • The issue of data communication is a common problem in this.

Examples of the time-sharing operating system are:- Unix

6. Real-Time Operating System

This is the most Advance Operating System, which does real-time processing, which means while leaving the missile, railway ticket booking, satellite, if everything is delayed even by a second, then this operating system does not remain idle at all.

These are of two types,

1. Hard Real-Time Operating System

This is the operating system, within which time is given to complete the task, the work gets completed within that time.

2. Soft Real-Time

In Soft Real-Time, the punctuality would have been a little less, what happens if a task is running and another task arrives at the same time, then the new task is given first priority. This was some information on Types Of Operating systems in Hindi. Before this, you have known what is Operating System.

What is Client Operating System?

A computer desktop is a standalone computer processing unit. They are designed to perform automation tasks for people. A desktop computer is very unique because it does not require any networks or external components to operate.

This client operating system is mostly used in computer desktops or portable devices. This operating system is typically different from centralized servers because it supports only one user.

Smartphones and small computer devices use the client operating system. This operating system manages the components of the device, which include printers, monitors, and camerasEach computer typically has a specific operating system.

These client operating systems provide multiprocessing power that too at a very minimal cost. Client Operating Systems come under Windows®, Linux®, Mac®, and Android®.

Each operating system is designed to perform some specific function on specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is the most primary consideration based on which an operating system is selected for client computers.

For example, Windows ® is most commonly used in recent times as a client operating system.

Which software is an operating system?

An operating system is system software.

What is another name for an operating system?

OS is another name of the operating system.

Which is an example of a mobile operating system?

Android, iOS, Windows Mobile और Symbian.

What did you learn today?

So friends today's information is very important. So it is more important for a particular student. Now if this question comes in the exam, what is the operating system and the functions of the operating system, then you can easily answer it.

By the way, according to me, the OS is bringing new features very fast, like talking about Windows 10 itself.

Because in the beginning it was told that OS is the heart of the computer. If you want to ask any question, then definitely write in the comment box below and if you want to give any suggestion, then definitely give it. If you have not subscribed to our blog yet, then definitely subscribe.